Ricercatori di professione. Complessità e nuove frontiere dei dottori di ricerca tra accademia, apprendistato e impresa
In Italy, the doctorate aims at building competences for research. The traditional setting of the doctorate focuses on training in view of academic career. The industrial doctorate and the apprenticeship doctorate raise the complexity of the training process and the management of the paths of field experience and mentoring, and, at the same time, impose a reflection on the construction of professional identity of researchers. This problem is connected to the thorny issue of employability of PhD graduates and their overqualified training. This high qualification is not always appreciated by the companies. In an international horizon, we outline the challenges and the opportunities of encounter between universities and enterprises. We offer some perspectives and strategies of development between the partnership, cooperation and training, in search of a repertoire of skills for PhD students and of collective competencies.